European tourism transport and environment
|Paul Peeters, Eckhard Szimba, Marco Duijnisveld|
Peeters, P., Szimba, E., Duijnisveld, M. (2005) European tourism transport and environment. European Transport Conference, Strasbourg, France, 3 - 5 October 2005, Association for European Transport.
The feasibility to merge passenger transport demand data with tourism data has been shown, in order to develop a new data model for O/D tourism flows at European level. The main progress achieved has been to include domestic tourism to existing international tourism data bases and to extend the number of modes to five. This allows for detailed assessment of environmental impacts of tourism O/D transport volumes, which can be compared to other tourism related environmental impacts.
The results for European Union tourism reveal that, with regard to number of journeys, tourism is determined by the domestic and intra-EU25 markets (together more than 90% of journeys) and by ground transportation (about 80%). Intercontinental trips add only about 5% to all EU25 volumes, though this share is expected of more than doubling until 2020. The private car is the most popular mode of transport with a share of 63% of all journeys. Air transport serves 20% of all tourism journeys in 2000, growing to 30% in 2020. The number of journeys for outbound tourism is almost identical to the number of inbound tourism, as both are dominated by domestic and intra-EU25 flows. In terms of total external costs, air transport has a share of 50% to 78%, depending on the estimate of the external cost of climate change. In terms of environmental impacts the shares per mode differ strongly. Tourism O/D transport volumes by car cause the largest impacts on air quality, whereas air transport shows the largest share in GHG emissions (80% in 2000). Rail, coach and ferry represent almost 20% of all tourism trips, but are responsible for only a few percent of the different environmental impacts. Tourism transport (inbound plus outbound) is a significant contributor of GHG emissions in the EU25 at approximately 15% of total EU GHG emissions in 2000 (‘total’ means emissions for all sectors within the EU25). This share is ....
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